Heathcliff and His Reputation
Forget most of the romantic nonsense you have heard about Heathcliff. Sure he's in love with Catherine, and you can't question his loyalty, but he has a serious mean streak. To put it bluntly: dude acts like a sociopath.
Brontë is at her best when she is describing him, and his looks garner a lot of attention from her and the other characters. Numerous polls have voted him literature's most romantic hero, which says a lot about the kind of men we like—tortured, brooding, and obsessive. Heathcliff is the embodiment of what is known by literary types as the Byronic hero: a dark, outsider antihero (kind of like Mr. Rochester from Jane Eyre or Edward Cullen from Twilight). He is lonerish and little demonic... but he's definitely hawt.
Heathcliff enters the Earnshaw home as a poor orphan and is immediately stigmatized because he's all alone in the world. Yep—Heathcliff is far from the only evil character in this novel.
Baby Heathcliff is characterized as devilish and cruelly referred to as "it" in the Earnshaw household. His language is "gibberish" and his dark otherness provokes the labels "gipsy," "wicked boy," "villain," and "imp of Satan." (Ouch!) This poor treatment is not much of an improvement on his "starving and houseless" childhood, and he quickly becomes a product of all of the abuse and neglect.
Oh yeah—and because his skin is dark he will never be accepted by his adoptive family or the villagers of Gimmerton. That Heathcliff should be given the name of an Earnshaw son who died in childhood confirms the impression of him being a fairy changeling—an otherworldly being that takes the place of a human child. Plus, he is never given the last name Earnshaw.
Heathcliff's arrival is seen as a direct threat to just about everyone, but mostly to Hindley. As Nelly Dean tells it, "from the very beginning, [Heathcliff] bred bad feeling in the house" (5.55). Her choice of words is super-suggestive, since there is so much preoccupation with his racial background (breeding).
Coming from Liverpool (a port town with many immigrants), Heathcliff is very likely mixed race. Some critics have suggested that he is partially black or Arab. Could he be Mr. Earnshaw's illegitimate child? This would explain his father's strange insistence on including him in the household.
Victorian England was fascinated by gypsies, and they appear in novels like Jane Austen's Emma and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, among others. Gypsies, who were thought to have come from Egypt (which is where the "gyp" part of the word comes from), were objects of discrimination, partly because their traveling lifestyle made them people without a nation or land (like Heathcliff), and partly because they just looked so different from the typical Anglo Saxon. In nineteenth-century novels, gypsies often steal children.
They are never the hero (or anti-hero) of the novel. So Brontë really mixes up our expectations here... especially because Heathcliff's appearance is so important.
Though the mystery of Heathcliff's background is never solved, there is endless speculation and fascination about his appearance. Mr. Earnshaw introduces him to his new family by saying that he is "as dark almost as if it came from the devil" (4.45), and he is called a "gipsy" by several different characters.
Looking as different as he does makes it impossible for Heathcliff ever truly to fit in. His determination to gain control of both Wuthering Heights and the Grange is driven by his desire to become master in spite of being so much an outsider—economically, familially, and physically. His envy of Edgar's light-skinned handsomeness is part of what fuels his anger about Catherine's choice.
During a three-year absence, Heathcliff is physically transformed. No longer a beaten-down street kid, he has become, as Nelly puts it:
... a tall, athletic, well-formed man; beside whom my master [Edgar] seemed quite slender and youth-like. His upright carriage suggested the idea of his having been in the army. His countenance was much older in expression and decision of feature than Mr. Linton's; it looked intelligent, and retained no marks of former degradation. A half-civilised ferocity lurked yet in the depressed brows and eyes full of black fire, but it was subdued […] (10.53)
By the time Lockwood meets him, Heathcliff is still dark and swarthy, of course, but now embodies the social status that he has gained over the last twenty-five years. Lockwood notes:
Mr. Heathcliff forms a singular contrast to his abode and style of living. He is a dark-skinned gipsy in aspect, in dress and manners a gentleman: that is, as much a gentleman as many a country squire [...] (1.15)
At this point in Heathcliff's story he contains oppositions: his ethnic background presents a strange contrast with his master-of-the-house look. Though he acquires the property, he can never change his appearance and what it implies socially. (For more on Heathcliff's race, check out our "Themes" section.)
Heathcliff and Violence
Heathcliff can be a real beast, which comes across through his numerous threats, violent acts, and symbolic association with that unruly pack of dogs (with names like Throttler and Skulker). In some ways he is the supreme depraved Gothic villain, but his emotional complexity and the depth of his motivations and reactions make him much more than that.
Heathcliff often falls back on violence as a means of expression, both of love and hate. Having been abused by Hindley for most of his childhood, Heathcliff is the classic victim-turned-perpetrator. His rage is tied to the revenge he so passionately seeks, but he also undertakes small "extracurricular" acts of violence, like hanging Isabella Linton's dog. Whether he is capable of sympathy for anyone but Catherine is highly questionable. As Nelly recounts:
[Heathcliff] seized, and thrust [Isabella] from the room; and returned muttering—"I have no pity! I have no pity! The more the worms writhe, the more I yearn to crush out their entrails! It is a moral teething; and I grind with greater energy in proportion to the increase of pain." (14.39-41)
That pretty much sums up his attitude—dude has zero pity—and he's talking about his wife! He treats his son, Linton, no better. Linton's sickly demeanor is a contrast to his father's strong and healthy physique, and Heathcliff has no tolerance for the poor little guy.
Though Heathcliff expresses and often enacts violence against just about everyone in the two houses, he would never hurt Catherine. However, his love for her is violent in the sense that it's passionate and stirs a brutal defensiveness. Importantly, by the end of the novel Heathcliff admits to Nelly that he no longer has any interest in violence. It's not so much that he is sated as that he is just... over it. As he tells her:
"It is a poor conclusion, is it not... An absurd termination to my violent exertions? I get levers and mattocks to demolish the two houses, and train myself to be capable of working like Hercules, and when everything is ready, and in my power, I find the will to lift a slate off either roof has vanished! My old enemies have beaten me; now would be the precise time to revenge myself on their representatives: I could do it; and none could hinder me. But where is the use? I don't care for striking. I can't take the trouble to raise my hand!" (33.59)
Heathcliff and Catherine
As readers painfully recall, Heathcliff leaves his beloved Cathy after overhearing her say it would degrade her to marry him. That moment really hurts, because if anything is obvious, it's that Catherine is Heathcliff's soulmate and his only ally against Hindley.
In a sense, their love remains immature, since they were only ever "together" as young children. The moments of joy that haunt Heathcliff for the rest of his life occur over just a few pages. Many of them take place as an escape from violence, as in this memory recounted in Catherine's makeshift journal:
"Hindley is a detestable substitute—his conduct to Heathcliff is atrocious—H. and I are going to rebel—we took our initiatory step this evening." (3.13)
And soon after:
"We made ourselves as snug as our means allowed in the arch of the dresser. I had just fastened our pinafores together, and hung them up for a curtain, when in comes Joseph, on an errand from the stables. He tears down my handiwork, boxes my ears, and croaks…" (3.19)
Without her, Heathcliff quickly turns from mythic hero into well-schooled brute.
Heathcliff and Cathy are haunted by each other; each sees the other as inseparable from his or her being. As Catherine tells Nelly Dean:
"Nelly, I am Heathcliff—He's always, always in my mind—not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself—but as my own being—so, don't talk of our separation again: it is impracticable." (9.101)
This confession is one of the novel's most famous lines, because it so poignantly expresses the nature of Heathcliff and Catherine's love: this love is not the stuff of Valentine's Day cards. It's beyond the physical, transcending all else. Heathcliff tells Nelly:
"I cannot look down to this floor, but her features are shaped on the flags! In every cloud, in every tree filling the air at night, and caught by glimpses in every object by day... my own features mock me with a resemblance. The entire world is a dreadful collection of memoranda that she did exist, and that I have lost her." (33.62)
Heathcliff and Cathy see themselves as one and the same, which is interesting considering how big of a deal everyone else makes about Heathcliff's "otherness": his swarthy complexion and low social standing. Cathy doesn't care about any of these differences; her love renders them meaningless.
But this closeness also leads to one of the biggest problems in the novel. Because Catherine considers Heathcliff to be a part of her, she does not see her marriage to Edgar as a separation from Heathcliff. For Heathcliff, though, soulmates should be together. Her death only increases his obsession, and he goes so far to have the sexton dig up her grave so he can catch one last glimpse of her.
While he can be a horrible brute, it's easy to pity Heathcliff. After all, he finds his perfect love and she goes off to marry a stiff like Edgar Linton. Does Brontë intend for us to like Heathcliff? It's hard to tell. Emily's sister Charlotte wrote that "Heathcliff, indeed, stands unredeemed; never once swerving in his arrow-straight course to perdition" (Charlotte Brontë, "Editor's Preface to the New Edition of Wuthering Heights").
And we have to say that there's something really magnetic about a guy who takes an "arrow-straight course," whether it's to perdition or elsewhere.Heathcliff's Timeline
Heathcliff is introduced in Nelly's narration as a seven year old Liverpool foundling (probably an Irish famine immigrant) brought back to Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw. His story, in the words of Nelly, is "a cuckoo's story", Heathcliff is the usurper. His presence in Wuthering Heights overthrows the prevailing habits of the Earnshaw family, members of the family soon become involved in turmoil and fighting and family relationships become spiteful and hateful. Even on his first night, he is the reason Mr. Earnshaw breaks the toys he had bought for his children. Nelly recorded "From the very beginning he bred bad feelings in the house". Heathcliff usurps the affections of Mr. Earnshaw to the exclusion of young Hindley-: "The young master had learnt to regard his father as an oppressor rather than a friend". Such is the extent of Heathcliff's usurpation, that Hindley is sent off to boarding school. As an adult, Heathcliff repeats the process, as he usurps the affections of Hareton and takes pride in the fact that he would be defended by the son in a fight with the father. Ultimately, Heathcliff parallels the cuckoo in taking over ownership of the Heights, thereby dispossessing the rightful heir, Hareton. Heathcliff destroys the natural familial emotional bonds which previously existed in the Earnshaw household. His presence results in a polarisation within the family, at first Mr. Earnshaw and the Catherine become his allies, whereas Hindley becomes his enemy.
The role of the usurper leads to Heathcliff's suffering at the hands of Hindley and it is the treatment neated out by Hindley to Heathcliff after the death of Mr. Earnshaw, that arouses in Heathcliff a deep and abiding hatred and an all consuming passion for revenge. Heathcliff never forgot an injury inflicted on him during childhood and on his return to Wuthering Heights, after a three year absence, the impulse to revenge himself on all those he regards as having wronged him becomes his overpowering passion. He ruins Hindley by encouraging his excessive drinking and gambling and with him aside he then turns his attention to Hareton-: "We'll see if one tree won't grow as crooked as another with the same wind to twist it". His revenge is also directed towards Edgar Linton, whom he sees as having stolen Catherine from him. He devises a series of schemes to wrest the ownership of the Grange from the Linton family and secure it for himself. He marries Isabella to "gain a foothold in the Grange" and to reek revenge on Edgar-: "Edgar's proxy in suffering". He forces the marriage between his son Linton and Cathy to secure the ownership of the Grange, his revenge on Edgar is complete, he having lost his sister, wife daughter, estate and in the final analysis, the closest companionship of Catherine in death.
Heathcliff's role as an avenger is helped by his intelligence and understanding, not just of his own motivations, but of the motivations of others. He recognises the source of Isabella's infatuation that-: "she abandoned this under a delusion" - "picturing in me a hero of romance". He also capitalises on Linton's poor health by inviting the pity of Cathy so that her affection and sympathy would facilitate a marriage that would leave he, Heathcliff, as master of the Grange.
As Heathcliff seeks his revenge, he becomes fiendish and is constantly associated with diabolical feelings, images and actions. The use of the imagery reinforces the inhuman aspect of Heathcliff. He regrets saving the infant Hareton. Nelly recalled that his face bore the greatest pain at he being the instrument that thwarted his own revenge. He takes perverse pleasure in the fact that Hareton was born with a sensitive nature which Heathcliff has corrupted and degraded. Heathcliff's pleasure at this corruption is increased by the fact that-: "Hareton is damnably fond of me". Heathcliff's cruelty is also evident when he hangs Isabella's dog despite her protestations. His attitude is devoid of fatherly feeling. He sees him only as a pawn in his revenge and his main consideration lies in calculating whether Linton lives long enough to have married Catherine so having acquired Thrushcross Grange-: "We calculate it will scarcely last 'till it's eighteen." Once the marriage has taken place, Linton's life is seen as worthless by Heathcliff-: "His life is not worth a farthing, and I won't spend a farthing on him" His cruel treatment of Isabella is, for him, a source of enjoyment. He tells Nelly-: "The more the worms writhe, the more I yearn to crush the entrails" Isabella recognises the sadistic treatment by Heathcliff and asks- "Is Mr. Heathcliff a man - is he the devil?"
There is, however, another side of the novels leading character. At no point in the novel can we doubt Heathcliff's eternal faithfulness to Catherine. His love survives her rejection of him-: "It would degrade me to marry Mr. Heathcliff" and despite her marriage to Edgar, Heathcliff's love for her continues undaunted. Heathcliff suffers much emotional rejection, but at no point does he waiver in his loyalty to her-: "I seek no revenge on you...the tyrant grinds down his slaves and they don't turn against him, they crush those beneath them" His genuine concern for Catherine prevents him from exacting direct revenge from Edgar. He says to Catherine-: "I would of died by witches before I would have touched a single hair of his head." When hearing of Catherine's illness, he exclaims-: "Existence after loosing her would be hell" In this statement, we can see the extent of Heathcliff's dedication and loyalty to Catherine and the sense of desolation her death would bring to him.
At times in the novel, Heathcliff is portrayed as a tormented spirit. After the death of Catherine, Heathcliff's lust for love is gone. His existence is then focused totally on exacting revenge. As his death approaches, he confesses to Nelly the extent of Catherine's hold over him, though she's now been dead 18 years-: "I cannot look down into the floor, her features are shaped in the flags...in every cloud, in every tree." The degree in which Heathcliff is tormented by Catherine is reflected when he said-: "Why did you betray your own heart, Cathy?...you love me, what right had you to leave me?" The sense of despair following news of Catherine's death is a good example of Heathcliff's tormented spirit-: "I cannot live without my life, I cannot live without my soul" He, said Nelly, howled not like a man, but like a savage beast getting goaded to death with knives and spears. Life for Heathcliff after Catherine's death is an unnatural existence. He feels he belongs with her both in body and in spirit and has already arranged with the Sexton to be buried beside her. Life for him is "like bending back a stiff spring". The young Cathy recognises that Heathcliff has rejected all society although she doesn't realise that his attachment remains to her late mother-: "Mr. Heathcliff, you have nobody to love you...your cruelty arises from your greater misery."
From the beginning of the novel and most likely from the beginning of his life, he has suffered pain and rejection. When he is brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw, he is viewed as a thing rather than a child. Mrs. Earnshaw was ready to fling it out of doors, while Nelly put it on the landing of the stairs hoping that it would be gone the next day. Without having done anything to deserve rejection, Heathcliff is made to feel like an outsider, following the death of Mr. Earnshaw, suffers cruel mistreatment at the hands of Hindley. In these formative years, he is deprived of love, sociability and education, according to Nelly, Hindley's treatment of Heathcliff was "enough to make a fiend of a saint". He is separated from the family, reduced to the status of a servant, forced to become a farm hand, undergoes regular beatings and is forcibly separated from Catherine. Personality that Heathcliff develops in his adult life has been formed in response to the deprivation of his childhood. Heathcliff received constant reminder of his lesser status e.g. on his first visit to the Grange, Catherine is taken into the Linton household, whereas Heathcliff is rejected, made fun of, and alienated. Later, when Catherine returns to Wuthering Heights, her changed appearance further alienates Heathcliff, a point emphasised during the visits of the Linton children, Heathcliff was not considered fit to join the party. The final sense of alienation and the most damning occurs with Catherine's marriage to Edgar, this he considers a betrayal of his love for her, in favour of the social status and civilised existence of the Grange. Heathcliff is however proud and determined and does not cower when confronted by those who consider themselves to be superiors, his determination was evident when taking advantage of Mr. Earnshaw's favouritism and exchanging horses with young Hindley, though his situation and position is somewhat worsened after the death of Mr. Earnshaw, Heathcliff's pride nevertheless remains intact. When Catherine returned to the Heights after her five week stay at the Grange, she is much changed in appearance and makes fun of the ragged Heathcliff, when ordered to shake hands with Catherine by Hindley, Heathcliff refuses, saying-: "I shall not stand to be laughed at, I shall not hear it". Similarly, when insulted by Edgar during one of his visits to the Heights, Heathcliff empties a toureen of applesauce over him. Finally, when the realisation dawns on him that Catherine has chosen status, wealth and position in preference to him, he disappears for three years and returns in the guise of a gentleman.
Part of Heathcliff's survival mechanism during the period that he is being terrorised by Hindley, is the thought and prospect of revenge, he is determined to have is own back and confesses to Nelly-: "I don't care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last, I hope he will not die before I do".
As Heathcliff approaches death and a reunion of Catherine, his resolve for revenge weakens until he no longer has an interest in that former preoccupation-: "I have lost the faculty of enjoying their destruction". This dousing of the flames of Heathcliff's revenge is a catalyst not just in the novel but in the histories of the Earnshaw and Linton families. Hareton and Cathy are spared, the sense of evil visited upon them by Heathcliff is removed and there occurs a spiritual renaissance within Wuthering Heights.
Heathcliff is a many faced character, in his early years he is characterised somewhat by his fiery temper, his sulleness, his proud nature, his fierce attachment to Catherine, his spitefulness and his capacity for hatred. The adult Heathcliff, who returns to Wuthering Heights after a three year absence, is a super-human villain driven by revenge, distorted by the sense of the wrongs done to him and made emotionally unstable by Catherine's marriage. This later Heathcliff is characterised by callousness by an incapacity to love and eventually by an all consuming passion for revenge against those who have wronged him and for unification with his beloved Catherine.
Stages in Heathcliff's Development:
A.) Arrival in Wuthering Heights and favoured child of Mr. Earnshaw, beginnings of relationship with Catherine.
B.) Mistreatment under Hindley, loss of social position, rejection by Catherine.
C.) Three year absence from the Heights.
D.) Returned in the guise of a gentleman, re-establishment of relationship with Catherine, execution of plan of revenge.
E.) Weakening of resolve, approach of death, admission of failure, burial beside Catherine.