Dinosaurs (meaning "terrible lizards") are a highly diverse group of Archosaurreptiles, and were the dominant land animals of the Mesozoicera. Over 500 different genera of dinosaurs are known.Fossils of dinosaurs have been found on every continent, and there are still frequent new discoveries.
Dinosaurs appeared in the Upper Triassic, about 231 million years ago. By the early Jurassic they were the top land vertebrates, and dominated most environments on land. They continued until the sudden K/T extinction event 66 million years ago. From the fossil record, we know that Birds are living Feathered dinosaurs (also called avian dinosaurs), because they evolved from the earliest theropods during the Late Jurassic period. And so they were the only line of dinosaurs to survive to the present day.
Dinosaurs had adaptations which helped make them successful. The first known dinosaurs were small predators that walked on two legs. All their descendants had an uprightposture, with the legs underneath the body. This transformed their whole life-style. There were other features. Most of the smaller dinosaurs had feathers, and were probably warm-blooded. This would make them active, with a higher metabolism than modern reptiles. Social interaction, with living in herds and co-operation seems very likely for some types.
The first dinosaur fossils were found in the early 19th century. They are major attractions at museums around the world. Dinosaurs also became part of popular culture. There have been many best-selling books and movies. New discoveries are widely covered in the media.
Types of dinosaurs[change | change source]
Dinosaurs are united by at least 21 traits in their skulls and skeletons. These common characters (called 'synapomorphies') are the reason palaeontologists are sure dinosaurs had a common origin.
However, when definite dinosaur fossils appear (early in the Upper Triassic), the group had already split into two great orders, the Saurischia, and the Ornithischia. The Saurischia keep the ancestral hip arrangement inherited from their Archosaur ancestors, and the Ornithischia have a modified hip structure.
C A saurischian pelvis (Staurikosaurus) DLesothosaurus pelvis
Dinosaur classification[change | change source]
The following is a simplified list of dinosaur groups based on their Evolution, it is organized based a the list of Mesozoic dinosaur species given by Holtz (2007). Groups with a dagger (†) next to them don't have any living members.
- Saurischia ("lizard-hipped"; includes Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha)
- Maniraptora (meaning "hand snatchers"; had long, slender arms and fingers)
- †Diplodocoidea (skulls and tails elongated; teeth typically narrow and pencil-like)
- †Macronaria (boxy skulls; spoon- or pencil-shaped teeth)
- †Brachiosauridae (long-necked, long-armed macronarians)
- †Titanosauria (diverse; stocky, with wide hips; most common in the late Cretaceous of southern continents)
- †Ornithischia ("bird-hipped"; diverse bipedal and quadrupedal herbivores)
Dinosaur origins and evolution[change | change source]
Archosaurs[change | change source]
The Archosaurs evolved into two main clades: those related to crocodiles, and those related to dinosaurs.
Earliest dinosaurs[change | change source]
The first known dinosaurs were bipedalpredators that were one to two metres long.
The earliest confirmed dinosaur fossils include saurischian ('lizard-hipped') dinosaurs Saturnalia 232–225 mya, Herrerasaurus 230–220 mya, Staurikosaurus possibly 230–225 mya, Eoraptor 231.4 mya, and Alwalkeria 230–220 mya. Saturnalia may be a basal saurischian or a prosauropod. The others are basal saurischians.
Among the earliest ornithischian ('bird-hipped') dinosaurs is Pisanosaurus 230–220 mya. Although Lesothosaurus comes from 199–189 mya, skeletal features suggest that it branched from the main Ornithischia line at least as early as Pisanosaurus.
Early saurischians were similar to early ornithischians, but different from modern crocodiles. Saurischians differ from ornithischians by keeping the ancestral configuration of bones in the pelvis (shown in a diagram above). Another difference is in the skull: the upper skull of the Ornithischia is more solid, and the joint connecting the lower jaw is more flexible. These features are adaptations to herbivory; in other words, it helped them grind vegetable food.
Adaptive radiation[change | change source]
Dinosaurs were a varied group of animals. Adaptive radiation let them live in many ecological niches. Paleontologists have identified over 500 different genera and 1,000 species of non-avian dinosaurs. Their descendants, the birds, number 9,000 living species, and are the most diverse group of land vertebrates.
The largest dinosaurs were herbivores (plant-eaters), such as Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus. They were the largest animals to ever walk on dry land. Other plant-eaters such as Iguanodon had special weapons, to help them fight off the meat-eaters. For example, Triceratops had three horns on its head shield, Ankylosaurus was covered in boney plates, and Stegosaurus had spikes on its tail.
The carnivores were bipedal (walked on their back legs), though not as we do. Their body was more towards the horizontal, balanced at the back by their tail. Some were very large, like Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus, but some were small, like Compsognathus. It was the smaller sized meat-eaters that may have evolved into birds. The first fossil bird, Archaeopteryx, had a skeleton which looked much like that of a dinosaur.
Life style[change | change source]
Locomotion[change | change source]
Dinosaurs were primitively bipedal: their probable ancestors were small bipedal Archosaurs. The date of the early dinosaur genusEoraptor at 231.4 million years ago is important. Eoraptor probably resembles the common ancestor of all dinosaurs; its traits suggest that the first dinosaurs were small, bipedal predators. The discovery of primitive, pre-dinosaur, types in Middle Triassicstrata supports this view. Analysis of their fossils suggests that the animals were indeed small, bipedal predators.
Those dinosaurs which returned to four-legged stance kept all four legs under their body. This is much more efficient than the sprawling legs of a lizard.
The big sauropods could never have reached so large a size without their pillar-like legs. A review surveys what we know about the mechanics of dinosaur movement.
Warm blooded[change | change source]
A major change in outlook came in the 1960s, when it was realised that small theropods were probably warm-blooded. The question of whether all theropods or even all dinosaurs were warm blooded is still undecided.
It is now certain (from fossils discovered in China: see Jehol biota) that small theropods had feathers. This fits well with the idea that they were warm-blooded, and that the origin of birds can be traced to a line of small theropods.
Activity[change | change source]
Warm blooded animals have a high metabolic rate (use up food faster). They can be more active, and for longer, than animals who depend on the environment for heating. Therefore, the idea of warm-blooded dinosaurs insulated by feathers led to the idea that they were more active, intelligent and faster runners than previously thought.
Main-stream palaeontologists have followed this view for small theropods, but not for larger herbivores. Since we know that the size of a Stegosaur's brain was about the size of a walnut, there is good reason to think its intelligence was limited.
Limitations[change | change source]
Despite their great success over a long period, there were life-styles which the dinosaurs never evolved. None ever evolved to live entirely in water, as many mammals do, though Spinosaurus was semi-aquatic. They never dominated the small terrestrial niche. All through the Mesozoic most small vertebrates were mammals and lizards.
Extinction[change | change source]
The extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous were caused by one or more catastrophic events, such as massive asteroid or meteorite impacts (like the Chicxulub impact), or increased volcanic activity.
Several impact craters and massive volcanic activity, such as that in the Deccan Traps in India, have been dated to the approximate time of the extinction event. These geological events may have reduced sunlight and hindered photosynthesis, leading to a massive disruption in Earth's ecology.
Did any terrestrial dinosaurs survive the great extinction event? Several fossils have been found in the Hell Creek Formation about 40,000 years later than the K/T extinction event. Many scientists dismiss the "Paleocene dinosaurs" as re-worked, that is, washed out of their original places and then re-buried in much later sediments. An associated skeleton (e.g. more than one bone from the same individual) found above the K/T boundary would be convincing, but no such finds have been reported.
Dinosaurs in fiction[change | change source]
- "...Dragons of the prime,
that tare each other in their slime". Tennyson, In Memoriam,1849.
Books about dinosaurs have been popular, especially with children, but adults have also enjoyed these kinds of books. In Edwardian times, Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a novel about a plateau filled with dinosaurs which he called The Lost World.
Jurassic Park in 1990 started a new phase in dinosaur popular culture when it was followed by the movie of the same name in 1993.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dinosauria.|
Books[change | change source]
- Bakker, Robert T. 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04287-2
- Farlow J.O. and Brett-Surman M.K. (eds) 1997. The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33349-0
- Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. 2007. Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-82419-7
- Paul, Gregory S. 2000. The Scientific American book of dinosaurs. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26226-4
- Weishampel, David B; Dodson, Peter and Osmólska, Halszka (eds) 2004. The Dinosauria. 2nd ed, Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24209-2
- ↑The word 'dinosaur' comes from Greek, meaning 'terrible lizard, ["Dinosaurs - What's in a name?". Children's BBC. Retrieved 2009-10-03. ] and was coined by English biologist Richard Owen in 1842. ["Richard Owen". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-10-05. ]
- ↑That is, fossil dinosaurs rather thant modern birds.
- ↑They probably diverged from earlier Archosaurs in the late Middle Triassic. The earliest exact date of a dinosaur fossil is that of Eoraptor, 231.4 mya. It is dated by a layer of volcanic ash close beneath the fossil. 
- ↑"Dino Timeline". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- ↑ 5.05.1St. Fleur, Nicholas (8 December 2016). "That Thing With Feathers Trapped in Amber? It Was a Dinosaur Tail". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- ↑Lee, MichaelS.Y.; Cau, Andrea; Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth J. (1 August 2014). "Sustained miniaturization and anatomical innovation in the dinosaurian ancestors of birds". Science345 (6196): 562–566. doi:10.1126/science.1252243. PMID 25082702. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6196/562. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
- ↑ 7.07.1Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2007). Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-82419-7.
- ↑ 8.08.1Palaeos lists "probably habitually bipedal" among the characteristics of the Dinosauromorpha (that is, early proto-dinosaurs). 
- ↑Moderately large bipedal dinosauromorphs had appeared by 246 mya. Fossil tracks show that the dinosaur lineage appeared soon after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Their age suggests that the rise of dinosaurs was slow and drawn out across much of the Triassic. Brusatte S.L; Niedźwiedzki G. & Butler R.J. 2010. "Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into early Triassic". Proceedings of the Royal Society B278 (1708): 1107–1113. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1746. PMC 3049033. PMID 20926435.
- ↑Nesbitt S.J. 2011. The early evolution of archosaurs : relationships and the origin of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History352: 1–292.
- ↑Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng and Hutchinson John R. 2013. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs. Nature497, 104–107. ; popular summary 
- ↑Alcober O.A & Martinez R.N. 2010. A new herrerasaurid (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of northwestern Argentina. Zookeys. 63, 55–81. 
- ↑Wang S.C. and Dodson P. (2006). "Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA103 (37): 13601–13605. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606028103. PMC 1564218. PMID 16954187.
- ↑Sereno PC (1999). "The evolution of dinosaurs". Science284 (5423): 2137–2147. doi:10.1126/science.284.5423.2137. PMID 10381873.
- ↑Sereno, P.C.; Forster, Catherine A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Monetta, Alfredo M. (1993). "Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria". Nature361: 64–66. doi:10.1038/361064a0.
- ↑A clade of Archosaurs ancestral to all dinosaurs and pterosaurs.
- ↑Alexander, R. McNeil 2006. Dinosaur biomechanics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1596): 1849–1855.  (full free access)
- ↑ 18.018.1Bakker, Robert T. 1986. The dinosaur heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. Citadel N.Y.
- ↑Benton M.J 2000. Walking with dinosaurs: the facts. BBC, London, Chapter 6.
- ↑Paleos introduction. 
- ↑MacLeod N. et al. (1997). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition". Journal of the Geological Society154 (2): 265–292. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.154.2.0265. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3721/is_199703/ai_n8738406/print.
- ↑Sullivan, RM (2003). "No Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs35 (5): 15. http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003RM/finalprogram/abstract_47695.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-02.
Provides history of paleontologic science and information regarding vertebrate flight and the geologic time scale. Also includes images and introductory text on groups within various taxonomic classes.
Field Museum of Natural History online exhibit includes movies, images, text, sound, games that provide an excellent overview of life in the era of dinosaurs.
Dinosauria On-Line offers dinosaur picture gallery, dictionaries, taxonomic information, geological data, maps, and explanations of dinosaur names, as well as a style guide for writing about Paleontology.
Mary Anning, Finder of Fossils
Brief biography of renowned 19th-century fossil hunter Mary Anning. Maintained through the San Diego Supercomputer Center.
Early Dinosaur Discoveries in North America
Discusses the 19th-century North American fossil discoveries that led to the early study of dinosaurs. Maintained by the University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Frank Potter's Science Gems: Earth Science
Dozens of sites for earth science education are identified by category, subcategory, and grade level by physicist and educator Frank Potter and his associates. A treasure trove for teachers, parents, and students. Very easy to navigate. Recommended.
The Talk.Origins Archive
An informative Web site with several articles and essays and FAQs about evolution, creationism, and the details.
Mary Anning (17991847)
Biography of renowned 19th-century fossil hunter Mary Anning. Includes links to pertinent Web sites, including some on ichthyosaurs. Maintained by the University of California Museum of Paleontology.
Paleontology Without Walls
The University of California Museum of Paleontology provides an interdisciplinary look at natural history, biology, paleontology, phylogeny, evolution, and related areas. Highly illustrated and highly recommended, especially for teachers and students.
Geology and Geologic Time
Exhibit and text from UCB Museum of Paleontology provides an overview of geologic time periods.