Linking Paragraphs In Essays

It is a good idea to occasionally use linking words and phrases at the start of a new paragraph. They can help to link what you have said in the previous paragraph to what you are about to say in your new paragraph.

These link words and phrases are often referred to as signposts. This is because they help to indicate to the reader when one point ends and other begins, as well as the relationship between each point.

Used with care, they can help to guide examiners and tutors through your essay. As well as bolster the impression of a coherent, flowing and logical piece of work.

Useful linking words and phrases that can be used at the start of new paragraphs:

A contrary explanation is that, …

Although, …

As a consequence, …

As a result, …

As we have seen, …

At the same time, …

Accordingly, …

An equally significant aspect of…

Another, significant factor in…

Before considering X it is important to note Y

By the same token, …

But we should also consider, …

Despite these criticisms, …it’s popularity remains high.

Certainly, there is no shortage of disagreement within…

Consequently, …

Correspondingly, …

Conversely, …

Chaytor, … in particular, has focused on the

Despite this, …

Despite these criticisms, … the popularity of X remains largely undiminished.

Each of these theoretical positions make an important contribution to our understanding of, …

Evidence for in support of this position, can be found in…,

Evidently,

For this reason, …

For these reasons, …

Furthermore, …

Given, the current high profile debate with regard to, …it is quite surprising that …

Given, the advantages of … outlined in the previous paragraph, …it is quite predictable that …

However, …

Having considered X, it is also reasonable to look at …

Hence, …

In addition to, …

In contrast, …

In this way, …

In this manner, …

In the final analysis, …

In short, …

Indeed, …

It can be seen from the above analysis that, …

It could also be said that, …

It is however, important to note the limitations of…

It is important to note however, that …

It is important however not to assume the applicability of, …in all cases.

It is important however not to overemphasis the strengths of …

In the face of such criticism, proponents of, …have responded in a number of ways.

Moreover, …

Notwithstanding such criticism, ….it’s popularity remains largely undiminished.

Notwithstanding these limitations, ….it worth remains in a number of situations.

Noting the compelling nature of this new evidence, …has suggested that.

Nevertheless, …remains a growing problem.

Nonetheless, the number of, …has continued to expand at an exponential rate.

Despite these criticisms, …it’s popularity remains high.

On the other hand, critics of, …point to its blindness, with respect to.

Of central concern therefore to, …sociologists is explaining how societal processes and institutions…

Proponents of…, have also suggested that…

Subsequently, …

Similarly, …

The sentiment expressed in the quotation, embodies the view that, …

This interpretation of, … has not been without it’s detractors however.

This approach is similar to the, …. position

This critique, unfortunately, implies a singular cause of, …

This point is also sustained by the work of, …

Thirdly, …

This counter argument is supported by evidence from, …

The use of the term, …

Therefore, …

There appears then to be an acceleration in the growth of

There is also, however, a further point to be considered.

These technological developments have greatly increased the growth in, …

Thus, …

To be able to understand, …

Undoubtedly, …

While such failures must not be discounted, … there were in comparison small, when compared

Whilst the discussion in the preceding paragraph, …

Whether crime rates were actually lower at this time continues to be a matter of debate. Evidence from…

There are an almost limitless number of linking phrases and words one can use. What is important is that they complement the style of your writing.

Use these examples to arouse your creativity.

Remember that you don’t have to use them all the time. Using words like, ‘therefore’ ‘subsequently’ ‘moreover’ etc. for every new paragraph would probably become repetitive and detract from the key component of most academic work – critical analysis.

Finally, remember to succinctly, identify the key paragraphs and/or sections of your essay during your introductory paragraph. Then restate them along side an unambiguous position in your concluding paragraph. Again this will help to communicate a clear and understandable progression and structure, to those who read or mark your essay.

Best wishes.
S J Tonge.

Paragraphs, Flow and Connectivity

The skill of structuring paragraphs and building effective connections between them is one that will allow you to develop and sustain a compelling argument in your written work. By setting out your ideas and evidence with a natural flow, you will make your work much more readable. This important technique will help you work towards higher levels of attainment in assignments and help to improve the quality of your everyday writing.

Flow and connectivity allow the reader to follow the thread of the argument from one sentence to the next and from one paragraph to the next.

Try the 301 Paragraphs, Flow and Connectivity Prezi to find out more.

Linking and Connections

  • Tip for linking - Using 'This' Or 'It'
  • There's a simple principle here - when you use 'this' or 'it' to sum up what was in the last paragraph, don't leave the reader to work out what 'this' or 'it' was. Spell it out briefly. This makes the link much clearer.

For example: 'Many right wing parties represented in the European Parliament raise objections and vote against any proposed legislation on principle, regardless of the individual merits of the legislation.'

  • Don't Put: This is a major part of Conservative thinking.
  • Do Put: This hostility to Europe is a major part of Conservative thinking. (REF: University of Teeside Learning HUB: http://dissc.tees.ac.uk)

Moving from one section to the next

  • Before proceeding to examine X, it will be necessary to …
  • Before employing these theories to examine X, it is necessary to …
  • Turning now to the experimental evidence on …
  • So far this paper/chapter has focussed on X. The following section will discuss …
  • Having defined what is meant by X, I will now move on to discuss …
  • This chapter follows on from the previous chapter, which (examined/laid out/outlined) X.

Moving from one section to the next whilst indicating addition, contrast or opposition

  • This chapter has demonstrated that … It is now necessary to explain the course of …
  • Having discussed how to construct X, the final section of this paper addresses ways of …
  • This section has analysed the causes of X and has argued that … The next part of this paper … In addition, it is important to ask …
  • On the other hand, in spite of much new knowledge about the role of …
  • However, this system also has a number of serious drawbacks.
  • Despite this, little progress has been made in the …

University of Manchester, Academic Phrasebook: http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/summary-and-transition/

Unity

A paragraph should discuss only one idea.
i.e. do not discuss advantages and disadvantages of a theory – split these parts of the argument into two separate paragraphs.

  • The opening sentence of paragraph should outline the main idea (topic sentence).
  • Every supporting sentence should directly explain, refer back to, or build on the main idea.
  • Use the final sentence to refer back to the topic sentence and/or lead into the following paragraph.

The WEED Model

One of the easiest models for writing paragraphs is the WEED model (Godwin, 2009).

  • W is for What. The first sentence of your paragraph should make it clear what subject you are covering - the topic sentence.
  • E is for Evidence. You need to support your views with quality research, and then reference it.
  • E is for Example. You should consider whether you need to provide examples to illustrate your subject.
  • D is for Do. This may be a summing up, or stating the implications of your evidence, e.g. why the subject supports your argument. This is especially important if you've been asked to critically analyse. Students often miss this last part out, but this shows your lecturer that you understand what you've been reading and gains you extra marks!

(University of Teeside Learning HUB: http://dissc.tees.ac.uk)

Top Tips
  • Remember: ONE paragraph, ONE idea!
  • State the purpose of the paragraph clearly in the topic sentence.
  • Make sure every subsequent sentence refers back to or reinforces the topic sentence.
  • Avoid short, clipped sentences; use connecting words to build effective links.
  • Use topic sentences and concluding sentences to build effective links between paragraphs.
  • Remember: Every paragraph should refer back to the main topic of the essay.
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